Reverse Logistics is:
The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal.
(Rogers and Tibben-Lembke,1998, p.2)
The basic characteristics of Reverse Logistics are:
It is a continuous installed process, that is to say, it is not only occurs once but constitutes an important element of the strategy of the enterprise. It includes an in-depth review of the circle of life of product so as to be determined the quantity of energy that is spent and the quantity of litter that is produced during the life of the product. The results of this research should be used as a base in planning programs of reduction of litter. It supports the total environmental mission of enterprise. So it can be used as a powerful marketing tool. It is instigated by the increasing vigilance of consumers, the offering by the competitors of products friendly to the environment and the established legislation.
The application of Reverse Logistics is reported in the following stages, which constitute the chain of recuperation of product:
· Reduction of volume, chopping, condensation
· Communication with the purchasers
· Treatment, filtering, reconstruction etc.
For successful application of Reverse Logistics, a suitable policy of enterprise is required. For this aim, among others, the Department of Supplies should adopt new criteria of choosing suppliers and prefer materials friendly to the environment. From the other side, the planning of products should foresee in drawing the products in a way that would allow the easy disassembling or their recycling.